Crystallinity and Ultrastructure of Ammoniated Wood: Part 1. X-Ray Crystallinity


  • R. A. Parham


Crystallite width and degree of crystallinity were determined on loblolly pine wood before and after treatment with gaseous anhydrous ammonia at room temperature. Crystallinity increased in both normal and compression wood, but no detectable change in crystallite width resulted from ammoniation. The increase in crystallinity was probably apparent and due to a cell-wall consolidation—a shrinkage of microvoid space and/or amorphous material between crystallites. However, other factors that might contribute to an actual increase in crystallinity are discussed.


Alexander, S. D., R. Marton, and S. D. Mcgovern. 1968. Effect of beating and wet pressing on fiber and sheet properties. I. Individual fiber properties. TAPPI, 51(6): 277-283.nCaulfield, D. F., and R. A. Steffes. 1969. Water-induced recrystallization of cellulose. TAPPI, 52(7): 1361-1366.nDavidson, R. W. 1968. Plasticizing wood with anhydrous ammonia. Brochure prepared by S.U.N.Y. College of Forestry, Syracuse, N. Y.nDavidson, R. W., and W. G. Baumgardt. 1970. Plasticizing wood with ammonia—a progress report. Forest Prod. J., 20(3):19-25.nEllefsen, O., K. Kringstad, and B. A. Tonnesen. 1964. The structure of cellulose as judged by X-ray methods. Norsk Skogind., 18(11): 419-430.nEllefsen, O., E. W. Lund, and B. A. Tonnesen. 1957. Studies on cellulose characterization by means of X-rays. Norsk Skogind., 11(8): 284-293, 11(9): 349-355.nFengel, D. 1970. Ultrastruetural behavior of cell wall polysaccharides. TAPPI, 53(3): 497-503.nGladstone, W. T. 1970. Kraft pulping of early-wood and latewood from loblolly pine. Forest Prod. J., 20(2): 17-24.nHermans, P. H., and W. A. Weidinger. 1948. Quantitative X-ray investigations on the erys-tallinity of cellulose fibers. A background analysis. J. Appl. Phys., 19(5): 491-506.nHeyn, A. N. J. 1955. Small particle X-ray scattering by fibers. I. Size and shape of micro-crystallites. J. Appl. Phys., 26(5): 519-526.nHeyn, A. N. J. 1969. The elementary fibril and super-molecular structure of cellulose in softwood fiber. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 26:52-68.nHorio, M., and R. Imamura. 1964. Crystallo-graphic study of xylan from wood. J. Polymer Sci., 2(2) Part A:627-644.nHowsmon, J. A., and W. A. Sisson. 1954. Sub-microscopic structure, p. 231-347, Part I. In E. Ott, H. M. Spurlin, and M. M. Grafflin [eds.], Cellulose and cellulose derivatives. Interseience Publishers, Inc., New York, N. Y.nJayme, G., and H. Knolle. 1964. Beitrag zur empirischen rontgenographischen Bestimmung des Kristallinitatsgrades cellulose haltiger Stoffe (The empirical X-ray determination of the degree of crystallinity of cellulosic material). Papier, 18(6): 249-255.nJurbergs, K. A. 1969. Micro void system in pine cellulose. J. Polymer Sci., (28) Part C:169-186.nKellogg, R. M., and F. F. Wangaard. 1969. Variation in the cell-wall density of wood. Wood and Fiber, 1(3): 180-204.nLee, C. L. 1961. Crystallinity of wood cellulose fibers studied by X-ray methods. Forest Prod. J., 11(2): 108-112.nLindberg, B., and H. Meier. 1957. Studies on glueomannans from Norwegian spruce. Svensk Papperstid., 60(21): 785-790.nMark, R. E. 1967. Cell wall mechanics of tracheids. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.nMcgovern, S. D. 1968. Effect of pulping and refining on fiber wall ultrastructure. M.S. thesis, S.U.N.Y. College of Forestry, Syracuse, N. Y.nMcmillin, C. W. 1968. Chemical composition of loblolly pine wood as related to specific gravity, growth rate, and distance from pith. Wood Sci. Technol., 2(4): 233-240.nMeller, A. 1961. The effect of crystalline structure on the alkaline degradation of cellulose fibers. J. Polymer Sci., 51:99-109.nMühlethaler, K. 1967. Ultrastructure and formation of plant cell walls. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 18:1-24.nNelson, R. 1961. The use of holocellulose to study cellulose supermolecular structure. J. Polymer Sci., 51:27-58.nParham, R. A. 1970. Structural effects of ammonia treatment on the wood of Pinus taeda L. Ph.D. dissertation, S.U.N.Y. College of Forestry, Syracuse, N. Y.nParks, L. R. 1959. Classification of pulps according to supermolecular structure of cellulose. TAPPI, 42(4): 317-319.nSchuerch, C. 1964. Wood plasticization—principles and potential. Forest Prod. J., 14(9): 377-381.nSegal, L., L. Loeb, and J. J. Creely. 1954. An X-ray study of the decomposition product of the ethylamine-cellulose complex. J. Polymer Sci., 13:193-206.nSegal, L., M. L. Nelson, and C. M. Conrad. 1953. Further studies on cotton cellulose with reduced crystallinity. Textile Res. J., 23:428-435.nStamm, A. J. 1964. Wood and cellulose science. Ronald Press Co., New York, N. Y.n






Research Contributions