Fiber Surface Structure and Fiber Liberation in Soda-anthraquinone Kraft and Soda Pulps as Determined by Conventional Electron Microscopy
Keywords:Delignification, lignin distribution, fiber, soda/AQ, kraft, soda pulping, defibration, fiber liberation
AbstractComparative studies on the surface structure of defibrated fibers and fiber liberation in nondefibrated chips from three different pulping processes, soda-anthraquinone (soda/AQ), kraft and soda pulping, were performed via conventional electron microscopy. By comparing the exposed fiber surface structure with the degree of fiber liberation, delignification processes in middle lamella regions were elucidated for these pulping systems. Soda/AQ pulping resulted in fiber liberation with less lignin removal than for either kraft or soda pulping process.
Côté, W. A., Z. Koran, and A. C. Day. 1964. Replica techniques for electron microscopy of wood and paper. Tappi47(8):477-484.nFergus, B. J., and D. A. I. Goring. 1969. The topochemistry of delignification in kraft and neutral sulphite pulping of birch wood. Pulp Paper Mag. Can.70(18):T314-322.nKerr, A. J., and D. A. I. Goring. 1976. Kraft pulping of pressure-refined fibers: Reactivity of exposed middle lamella lignin. Sven. Papperstidn.79(1):20-23.nKibblewhite, R. P. 1973. Effects of chlorite delignification on the structure and chemistry of Pinus radiata wood. Cellulose Chem. Technol.7:659-668.nKibblewhite, R. P., and V. D. Harwood. 1973. Effects of alkaline extraction on the structure and chemistry of lignified and delignified Pinus radiata wood. Cellulose Chem. Technol.7:669-678.nKoran, Z. 1970. Surface structure of thermomechanical pulp fibers studied by electron microscopy. Wood Fiber2(3):247-258.nLuft, J. H. 1961. Improvements in epoxy resin embedding methods. J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol.9(2):409-414.nPolcin, J., J. Farkas, and M. Karchanek. 1967. Morphological structural changes of cellulose fibers during sulfate delignification investigated by electron microscope. Pulp Paper Mag. Can.68(11):T573-580.nProcter, A. R., W. Q. Yean, and D. A. I. Goring. 1967. The topochemistry of delignification in kraft and sulphite pulping of spruce wood. Pulp Paper Mag. Can.68(9):T445-453.nSaka, S. 1980. Lignin distribution as determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.nSaka, S., R. J. Thomas, and J. S. Gratzl. 1978. Lignin distribution: Determination by energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays. Tappi61(1):73-76.nSaka, S., R. J. Thomas, and J. S. Gratzl. 1979a. Lignin distribution in soda-oxygen and kraft fibers as determined by conventional electron microscopy. Wood Fiber11(2):99-108.nSaka, S., R. J. Thomas, and J. S. Gratzl. 1979b. Lignin distribution by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Pages 15-29 in G. E. Inglett and I. F. Falkehag, eds. Dietary fibers: Chemistry and nutrition. Proceedings of American Chemical Society, Academic Press Inc.nSaka, S., R. J. Thomas, J. S. Gratzl, and Abson. 1982. Topochemistry of delignification in Douglas-fir wood with soda-anthraquinone, kraft and soda pulping as determined by SEM-EDXA. Wood Sci. Technol., in press.nWood, J. R., P. A. Ahlgren, and D. A. I. Goring. 1972. Topochemistry in the chlorite delignification of spruce wood. Sven. Papperstidn.75(1):15-19.nWood, J. R., and D. A. I. Goring. 1973. The distribution of lignin in fibres produced by kraft and acid sulphite pulping of spruce wood. Pulp Paper Mag. Can.74(9):T309-313.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.