Life-Cycle Impacts of Forest Resource Activities in the Pacific Northwest and Southeast United States


  • Leonard R. Johnson
  • Bruce Lippke
  • John D. Marshall
  • Jeffrey Comnick


Life-cycle inventory, forest management impacts, CORRIM, timber harvesting costs, timber harvesting fuel consumption


A more intensive management alternative was created for each region by reallocating acres to higher management intensity classes. Harvesting activities were segmented into five stages to allow development of all inputs and outputs: (1) felling, (2) processing (bucking, limbing, cutting to length), (3) secondary transportation (skidding and yarding), (4) loading, and (5) hauling to a process point. The costs and consumption rates of energy and materials for these activities drove the log outputs, emissions, and carbon pools. Logs are allocated to wood product facilities, the primary product of the analysis, or pulp and paper mills as a co-product from the forest. Non-merchantable slash is generally left on site and is disposed of through site preparation activities. Transportation-related activities and the required diesel fuel produce by far the largest contribution to emission outputs. However, fertilizer use contributes to much of the change in emissions as acreage shifts to higher intensity management alternatives.


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