Furfuryl Alcohol Emulsion Resins as Co-Binders for Urea-Formaldehyde Resin-Bonded Particleboards
Keywords:Furfuryl alcohol, polyfurfuryl alcohol emulsion resin, urea-formaldehyde resins, particle-board binder resins
AbstractAn approach to using water-insoluble furfuryl alcohol (FA) resins as a co-binder for particleboard (PB) urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins was evaluated. Sprayable FA/UF mixed resins were made by emulsifying FA resins of varying advancements and mixing with various formaldehyde to urea (F/U) ratio UF resins in various proportions. The binder performance of the mixed FA/UF resins was then evaluated by bonding laboratory PBs using a weakly acidic ordinary UF resin curing catalyst at various hot pressing temperatures. The PBs were also heat-treated and were aged for two years at room temperature. The test results of bond strengths and formaldehyde emission levels of PBs showed promising improvements at about 30% FA resin additions, although the results were preliminary due to the variable performance nature of such binder systems.
Barrier, J. W., and M. M. Bulls. 1992. Feedstock availability of biomass and wastes. Pages 410-421 in R. M. Rowell, T. P. Schultz, and R. Narayan, eds. ACS Symp. Series 476. Emerging technologies for materials and chemicals from biomass. Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, DC.nBaxter, G. F., and D. V. Redfern. 1958. Preparation of inter-condensation products of monohydric phenol-furfural resin and formaldehyde and utilization thereof in the production of plywood. U.S. Patent 2,861,977.nBrown, L. 1952. Resin forming reactions of furfural and phenol. Ind. Eng. Chem. 44:2673-2675.nDe Jong, J., and J. De Jonge. 1952. Reel. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas 71:643-660.nDunlop, A. P., and F. N. Peters. 1953. Furfural production, analytical methods and physical properties. Pages 272-331 in The furans. ACS Monograph No. 119, Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, NY.nFawcett, A. A., and W. Dadamba. 1982. Characterization of furfuryl alcohol polymers by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Makromol. Chem. 183:2799-2809.nGraves, G. 1993. Formaldehyde emission control via resin technology. Pages 221-232 in Proc. 27th International Particlcboard and Composite Materials Symposium, Washington State University, Pullman, WA.nKelly, S. S., R. A. Young, R. M. Ramon, and R. H. Gillespie. 1982. Bond formation by wood surface reactions, Part IV. Analysis of furfuryl alcohol, tannin and malcic acid bridging agents. J. Wood Chem. Tech. 2(3): 317-342.nKim, M. G., and L. W. Amos. 1990. Quantitative C-13 NMR study of urea-formaldehyde resins. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 29:208-212.nKim, M. G., G. Boyd, and R. C. Strickland. 1993. Adhesive properties of furfural-modified phenol-formaldehyde resins as oriented strandboard binders. Holzfor-schung 48:262-267.nLaslo-Hedvig, Z., M. Szesztay, F. Aix, and F. Tudos. 1982. Some kinetic features of the initial stage of the acid-catalyzed polycondensation of furfuryl alcohol and formaldehyde I and II. Angew. Makromol. Chem. 107: 961-973.nLeitheiser, R. H., B. R. Bogner, and F. C. Grant-Acquah. 1980. Water dilutable furan resin binder for particleboard. Pages 59-64 in W. E. Johns and R. H. Gillespic, eds. Proc. 1980 Symposium Wood adhesives—Research, application, and needs, USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI.nLeitheiser, R. H., B. R. Bogner, F. C. Grant-Acquah, W. E. Johns, and W. Plageman. 1982. A water-dilutable furan resin binder for particle-board. J. Adhesion 14:305-313.nMaciel, G. E., I-S. Chuang, and G. E. Myers. 1982. 13C NMR study of cured furfuryl alcohol resins using cross polarization and magic angle spinning. Macromolecules 15:1218-1220.nMcKillip, W. J., and E. Sherman. 1980. Furan derivatives. Pages 499-527 in Kirk-Othmer: Encyclopedia of chemical technology. Vol. 11, 3rd ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.nMilkovic, J., G. E. Myers, and R. A. Young. 1979. Interpretation of curing of furfuryl alcohol resins. Cellulose Chem. Technol. 13:651-672.nMyers, G. E. 1990. Formaldehyde liberation and cure behavior of urea-formaldehyde resins. Holzforschung 44:117-126.nMyers, G. E. 1984. How mole ratio of UF resin affects formaldehyde emission and other properties: A literature critique. Forest Prod. J. 34:35-41.nNovotny, E. E., and W. W. Johnson. 1924. Furfural-urea resin and process of making the same. U.S. Patent 1,827,824.nPlath, L. 1967. Einfluss von Presszeit und Presstemperatur auf die Formaldehyd-Abspaltung. Holz Roh-Werkst. 25:63-68.nSchmitt, C. R. 1974. Polyfurfuryl alcohol resins. Polymer Plastic Technol. 3(2): 121-158.nSchneider, M. H., Y. H. Chui, and S. B. Ganev. 1996. Properties of particleboard made with a polyfurfural-alcohol/urca-formaldehyde adhesive. Forest Product J. 46:79-83.nSchultz, T. P. 1990. Exterior plywood resin formulated from furfuryl alcohol and para-formaldehyde. Holzforschung 44:467-468.nWerwerka, E. M., E. D. Loughran, and K. L. Walters. 1971. A study of low molecular weight components of furfuryl alcohol polymers. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 15: 1437-1451.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.