Penetration Indices of Hardwoods: A Quantitative Approach to Define Treatability
Keywords:Hardwoods, flow path, penetration, creosote, wax, water-borne salts, treatability, penetration index
AbstractFluid accessibility of various structural components of 15 hardwoods belonging to different treatability classes was studied by using water-soluble and organic solvent stains. Penetration was found to vary even among the species categorized under the same treatability class indicating large-scale variation within the existing treatability classes. A quantitative estimation of this behavior was obtained in the form of a penetration index. This approach indicates that treatability class needs a change for 5 of the 15 species studied.
Anon. 1982. Code of practice for preservation of timber. Indian Standard 401. Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhavan, New Delhi.nAnon. 1987. The state of forest report. Govt. of India, Ministry of Env. and Forests, Forest Survey of India, Dehra Dun.nAston, D., and R. W. Watson. 1976. The performance of preservative treated hardwoods in ground contact. B.W.P.A. Ann. Conv. 41-53.nChaubey, B. B., P. B. Dobriyal, and S. Kumar. 1986. Structural factors affecting penetration of fluids in Indian hardwoods: A microscopic study. J. Timb. Dev. Assoc. (India) 33(3):25-35.nDickinson, D. J., and N. A. A. H. Sorkhoh. 1976. The micro-distribution of wood preservatives. Scanning Electron Microscopy I.I.T.R.I., Chicago. Pp. 549-554.nGreaves, H. 1974. A review of the influence of structural anatomy on liquid penetration into hardwoods. J. Inst. Wood Sci. 6(6):37-40.nGreaves, H. 1977. An illustrated comment on the softrot problem in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Holzforschung 28(5):193-200.nJain, D. K., S. N. Nautiyal, and S. Kumar. 1991. Effect of permeability and specific gravity on treatability of refractory hardwoods. J. Timb. Dev. Assoc. (India) 38(4):23-28.nKumar, S., and P. B. Dobriyal. 1983. Flow paths in selected softwoods and hardwoods. J. Timb. Dev. Assoc. (India) 29(3):26-31.nKumar, S., and P. B. Dobriyal. 1992. Treatability and flow path studies in bamboo. Part I. Dendrocalamus strictus Nees. Wood Fiber Sci. 24(2):113-117.nKumar, S., P. B. Dobriyal., and B. B. Chaubey. 1990. Pressure impregnation of hardwoods: Treatment schedules for easy-to-treat Indian hardwoods. Wood Fiber Sci. 22(1):62-64.nKumar, S., P. B. Dobriyal., and R. P. Sharma. 1982. Pressure impregnation of hardwoods. I. Treatment schedules for easy-to-treat wood species. J. Timb. Dev. Assoc. (India) 28(4):24-29.nMackay, J. F. G. 1971. Some factors influencing water vapor diffusion in hardwood species. Wood Sci. 4(1):62-64.nPearson, R. S., and H. P. Brown. 1932. Commercial timbers of India. Govt. of India Press, Simla.nPurushotham, A., N. R. Das, S. Singh, I. V. Subrahmanayam, V. R. Shivaramakrishna, S. R. M. Pillai, K. C. Badola, and H. S. Gahlot. 1967. Natural durability of commercially important timber species and efficacy of wood preservatives on land (Part I). J. Timb. Dev. Assoc. (India) 13(1):3-88.nSagar, S. R., and M. Y. Ansari. 1983. Commercial availability of common timbers in India. J. Timb. Dev. Assoc. (India) 29(3):21-23.nWinandy, J. E., and R. M. Rowell. 1984. The chemistry of wood strength. In R. M. Rowell, ed. The chemistry of solid wood. Advances in chemistry, Series 207. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington, DC.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.