Wood Strength and Weight Losses Caused by Soft Rot Fungi Isolated from Treated Southern Pine Utility Poles
Keywords:Soft rot, tensile strength loss, weight loss, anatomical damage, utility poles, southern pine, American beech, <i>Phialophora</i>, <i>Phialocephala</i>, <i>Alternaria</i>, <i>Chaetomium</i>
Six soft rot fungi, commonly isolated from preservative-treated southern pine poles in service, were tested for their capacities to cause weight loss, anatomical damage, and tensile strength loss in southern pine and American beech. The fungi caused significant losses in both wood weight and strength in laboratory tests at two- and four-month periods. The weight losses were greater in beech than in pine and increased with incubation time, although not linearly. Weight losses caused by some fungi varied substantially with incubation temperatures.
Strength was reduced more rapidly in pine, and losses attained were up to 88% of the original wood tensile strength. Strength losses were lower in beech and appeared to be delayed. Reasons for this variation are presented, and the potential of soft rot fungi to affect the service life of treated wood products in ground contact considered.
Armstrong, F. H., and J. G. Savory. 1959. The influence of fungal decay on the properties of timber. Holzforschung13(3):84-89.nBaechler, R. H., J. O. Blew, and C. G. Duncan. 1961. Causes and prevention of decay of wood in cooling towers. ASME 61-PET-5. 13 pp.nBarghoorn, E. S., and D. H. Linder. 1944. Marine fungi; their taxonomy and biology. Farlowia1:395-467.nCarranza, Julieta. 1979. Fungi associated with creosoted pine utility poles in New York. Master's thesis, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY, 83 pp.nCorbett, N. H. 1965. Micro-morphological studies on the degradation of lignified cell walls by Ascomycetes and Fungi Imperfecti. J. Inst. Wood Sci.14:18-29.nCourtois, H. 1963. Mikromorphologische Befallsymptome beim Holzabbau durch Moderfäulepilze. Holzforschung und Holzverwertung15(5):88-101.nCurran, P. M. T. 1979. Degradation of wood by marine and non-marine fungi from Irish coastal waters. J. Inst. Wood Sci.8(3):114-120.nDuncan, C. G. 1960. Wood attacking capacities and physiology of soft rot fungi. U.S.D.A. For. Serv., For. Prod. Lab. Rep. No. 2173. 28 pp.nDuncan, C. G., and W. E. Eslyn. 1966. Wood decaying Ascomycetes and Fungi Imperfecti.Mycologia58(4):642-645.nFindlay, W. P. K., and J. G. Savory. 1950. Breakdown of timber in water cooling towers. Intl. Bot. Congr. Proc.7:315-316.nFriis-Hansen, H. 1976. Studies and experiences of occurrence and development of soft rot in salt-treated poles of pine (Pinus sylvestris) installed in Swedish transmission lines in the years 1940-1954. In Soft rot in utility poles salt-treated in the years 1940-1954. Swedish Wood Preservation Institute Nr. 117E. 29 pp.nGreaves, H. 1970. Effect of selected bacteria and Actinomycetes on the decay capacities of some wood-rotting fungi. Mat. u. Org.5:265-279.nGreaves, H. 1977. An illustrated comment on the soft rot problem in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Holzforschung31(3):71-79.nGreen, N. B. 1980. The biochemical basis of wood decay in micromorphology. J. Inst. Wood Sci.8(5):221-228.nHaider, K., and K. H. Domsch. 1969. Abbau und Umsetzung von lignifiziertem Pflanzenmaterial durch mikroskopische Bodenpilze. Arch. Mikrobiol.64:338-348.nHenningsson, B. 1967. Changes in impact bending strength, weight, and alkali solubility following fungal attack on birch wood. Studia Forestalia Suecica Nr. 41, Stockholm. 21 pp.nHenningsson, B., and T. Nilsson. 1976. Microbiological, microscopic and chemical studies of salt-treated utility poles installed in Sweden in the years 1941-1946. In Soft rot in utility poles salt-treated in the years 1940-1954. Swedish Wood Preservation Institute Nr. 117E. 25 pp.nHoffmeyer, P. 1976. Mechanical properties of soft rot decayed Scots pine with special reference to wooden poles. In Soft rot in utility poles salt-treated in the years 1940-1954. Swedish Wood Preservation Institute Nr. 117E. 55 pp.nHolt, D. M., and E. B. Gareth-Jones. 1978. Bacterial cavity formation in delignified wood. Mat. u. Org.13(1):13-30.nHolt, D. M., E. B. Gareth-Jones, and S. E. J. Furtado. 1979. Bacterial breakdown of wood in aquatic habitats. Proc. BWPA Ann. Conv.1979:13-22.nMarkwardt, L. J., and T. R. C. Wilson. 1935. Strength and related properties of woods grown in the United States. U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 479. 99 pp.nNilsson, T. 1973. Studies on wood degradation and cellulolytic activity of microfungi. Studia Forestalia Suecica Nr. 104, Stockholm. 40 pp.nNilsson, T. 1974. The degradation of cellulose and the production of cellulase, xylanase, mannanase, and amylase by wood-attacking microfungi. Studia Forestalia Suecica Nr. 114, Stockholm. 61 pp.nNilsson, T., and B. Henningsson. 1975. Some aspects on microflora and the decomposition of preservative treated wood in ground contact. Intl. Symp. Berlin-Dahlem, 1975. Org. u. Holz Beiheft3:307-318.nNilsson, T., and B. Henningsson. Phialophora species occurring in preservative treated wood in ground contact. Mat. u. Org.13(4):297-313.nPanshin, A. J., and C. DeZeeuw. 1970. Textbook of wood technology, Vol. 1. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., NY. 705 pp.nSavory, J. G. 1954a. Breakdown of timber by Ascomycetes and Fungi Imperfecti.Ann. Appl. Biol.41(2):336-347.nSavory, J. G. 1954b. Damage to wood caused by microorganisms. J. Appl. Bact.17(2):213-218.nSteele, R. G. D., and J. H. Torrie. 1960. Principles and procedures of statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., NY. 481 pp.nWilcox, W. W. 1964. Preparation of decayed wood for microscopical examination. U.S.D.A. For. Ser., For. Prod. Lab., Res. Note FPL-056, 22 pp.nWilcox, W. W. 1978. Review of literature on the effects of early stages of decay on wood strength. Wood Fiber9(4):252-257.nZabel, R. A., C. J. K. Wang, and F. C. Terracina. 1982. The fungal associates, detection and fumigant control of decay in treated southern pine poles. EPRI Report EL-2768. 104 pp.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.