Toughness of Sap-Stained Southern Pine Salvaged After Beetle Attack


  • Steven A. Sinclair
  • Thomas E. McLain
  • Geza Ifju


Southern pine beetle, toughness, blue stain, structural lumber, incipient decay


Approximately 1,200 small clear specimens were machined from visually graded dimension lumber and tested for toughness. Dimension lumber was obtained from green healthy southern pine and beetle-killed southern pine at various times after foliage fade. The specimens machined from beetle-killed material were free of defects with the exception of sap stain, which is not currently considered in grading rules. Toughness generally decreased with increasing time between foliage fade and the harvesting of the beetle-killed sawtimber. Most of the loss in toughness occurred during the first year after foliage fade. For certain structural applications where toughness or shock resistance of wooden members may be of some importance, caution should be exercised in the utilization of beetle-killed southern pine.


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