Effects of Cutting Direction, Rake Angle, and Depth of Cut on Cutting Forces and Surface Quality during Machining of Balsam Fir


  • Svetka Kuljich
  • Roger E. Hernández
  • Angela M. Llavé
  • Ahmed Koubaa


Cutting forces, surface quality, cutting direction, rake angle, depth of cut, chipper-canter, balsam fir


Effects of cutting direction with respect to grain angle, rake angle, and depth of cut on cutting forces and surface quality during machining of balsam fir were evaluated. These factors were analyzed within a perspective of their application to a chipper-canter machining process. Balsam fir is one of the most important boreal species in Canada and is widely used in the pulp and paper industry and construction applications. Wood samples prepared at four cutting directions (0-90°, 15-75°, 30-60°, and 45-45°) were machined using four rake angles (35, 45, 55, and 65°) and three cutting depths (1, 2, and 3 mm). Results showed that rake angle was the most important factor affecting cutting forces and surface quality. Furthermore, as rake angle increased, the effect of cutting direction and depth of cut on cutting forces and surface quality became less important. At 65° rake angle, cutting forces decreased and surface quality increased as depth of cut passed from 3 to 1 mm. Surface quality also improved as cutting action changed from the 0-90° to 45-45° direction. The results gave useful information for improving the performance of the chipper-canter in terms of surface quality and energy consumption.


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