A Review of Yellow Cedar (<i>Chamaecyparis Nootkatensis</i> [D. Don] Spach) Extractives and their Importance to Utilization
Keywords:<i>Chamaecyparis nootkatensis</i>, extractives, foliage, color, odor, durability, stain, review, chemical structure
AbstractThe major foliage and wood extractives, such as terpenes, sesquiterpenes and tropolones, from yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) are reviewed and their properties are discussed in relation to color, durability, distinctive odor, and stain susceptibility.
Anderson, A. B. 1961. On the chemistry of wood durability and decay. Structure of fungicidal components in some cedars. Proc. Symp. Phytochem., Univ. Hong Kong, Sept. 11-16. pp. 101-116.nAnderson, A. B., and D. D. Syrdal. 1970a. The alas-kenes-precursors of tricyclic sesquiterpenes. Tetrahedron Lett.26:2277-2280.nAnderson, A. B., and D. D. Syrdal. 1970b. Terpenes and ses-quiterpenes of Chamaecyparis nootkatensis leaf oil. Phytochem.9:1325-1340.nBarton, G. M., and B. F. MacDonald. 1971. The chemistry and utilization of western red cedar. Dep. Fish. For., Can. For. Serv., Publ. No. 1023.nBarton, G. M., B. F. MacDonald., and T. S. Sahota. 1972. Juvenile hormone-like activity of thujic acid, an extractive of western red cedar. Bi-mo. Res. Notes, Can. For. Serv.28(4):22-23.nBrowning, B. L. 1963. The chemistry of wood. Interscience Publ., New York.nCarlsson, B., H. Erdtman, A. A. Frank, and W. E. Harvey. 1952. The chemistry of the natural order Cupressales VIII. Heartwood constituents of Chamaecyparis nootkatensis-carvacrol, nootkatin, and chamic acid. Acta Chem. Scand.6:690-696.nCheng, Y. S., and E. von Rudloff. 1970a. The volatile oil of the leaves of Chamaecyparis nootkatensis.Phytochem.9:2517-2527.nCheng, Y. S., and E. von Rudloff. 1970b. Two new diterpenoid oxides from the leaf oil of Chamaecy-paris nootkatensis.Tetrahedron Lett.14: 1131-1132.nCserjesi, A. J., and R. S. Smith. 1968. Anthraquinone production by a fungus causing black heartwood stain in yellow cedar. Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl.35:91-96.nClark, R. H., and C. C. Lucas. 1926. The essential oil content of Chamaecyparis nootkatensis.Trans. Roy. Soc. Can. Sec. III20: 423-428.nDuff, S. R., and H. Erdtman. 1954. The chemistry of the natural order Cupressales. X. Nootkatin. Chem. Ind.15:432-433.nErdtman, H. 1952. Chemistry of some heart-wood constituents of conifers and their physiological and taxonomic significance. Page 22 in J. W. Cook, ed. Progress in organic chemistry, Vol. 1. Butterworths, London.nErdtman, H. 1955. Pages 351-358 in: K. Paech and M. V. Tracey, eds. Modern Methods of Plant Analysis. Vol. 3, Natural Tropolones, Springer, Berlin.nErdtman, H., W. E. Harvey, and J. G. Topliss. 1956. The chemistry of the natural order Cupressales. XVI. Heartwood constituents of Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (Lamb.) Spach. The structure of chamic and chaminie acids. Acta Chem. Scand.10:1381-1392.nErdtman, H., and Y. Hirose. 1962. The chemistry of the natural order Cupressales. 46. The structure of nootkatone. Acta Chem. Scand.16:1311-1314.nErdtman, H., and T. Norin. 1966. The chemistry of the order Cupressales. Prog. Chem. Org. Nat. Prod.24:257-287.nErdtman, H., and J. G. Topliss. 1957. XVIII. Nootkatene, a new sesquiterpene-type hydrocarbon from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (Lamb.) Spach. Acta Chem. Scand.11:1157-1161.nFengel, D., and D. Grosser. 1975. Chemische Zusammensetzung von Nadel und laubhölzern. Holz Roh-Werkst.33:32-34.nJohnson, E. L., and A. J. Cserjesi. 1975. Gas-liquid chromatography of some tropolone-TMS ethers. J. Chromatography107:388.nKurth, E. F. 1950. The chemical analysis of western woods, Part III. Tappi33:507-508.nNorin, T. 1964. The chemistry of the natural order Cupressales. Part 50. The absolute configuration of chamic, chaminic, and isochamic acids [from heartwood of Chamaecyparis nootkatensis]. Part 51. Chanootin, a bicyclic C15-tropolone from the heartwood of C. nootkatensis (Lamb.) Spach. Arkiv. för Kemi, Stockholm22 (2): 123-135.nRennerfelt, E., and G. Nacht. 1955. The fungicidal activity of some constituents from heartwood of conifers. Sven. Bot. Tidskr.49: 419-432.nSmith, R., and A. J. Cserjesi. 1970. Degradation of nootkatin by fungi causing black heartwood stain in yellow cedar. Can. J. Bot.48 (10):1727-1729.nZavarin, E., R. M. Smith, and A. B. Anderson. 1959. Paper chromatography of the tropolones of Cupressaceae II. J. Org. Chem.24: 1318-1321.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.