Numerical Modeling of the Load-Deformation Behavior of Doweled Softwood and Hardwood Joints


  • Alfredo Manuel Pereira Geraldes Dias
  • Jan Willem Van de Kuilen
  • Helena Maria Pires Cruz
  • Sergio Manuel Rodrigues Lopes


Constitutive law, dowel-type fasteners, finite elements method, nonlinear analysis, wood joints, yield criterion


This article presents a nonlinear finite element model developed to simulate the load-deformation behavior of wood joints when loaded by a dowel-type fastener. Particular attention was paid to the initial load-deformation behavior that had a significant influence on the joint stiffness, a joint property with a large influence on the mechanical behavior of wood-based composite structures connected with semirigid joints. To obtain accurate predictions of joint deformation, the material models available in the literature were adapted and nonlinear deformations were taken into consideration during very early loading. The proposed model precisely describes the embedding behavior of different wood species and densities. Numerical results compared very well with those obtained in experiments. Based on this analysis, the recommendation is to obtain the material model inputs based on design values available in the literature.


Adalian CPM (2002) Wood Model for the dynamic behaviour of wood in multiaxial compression. Holz Roh Werkst 60(6):433-439.nCEN (1991) ISO EN 26891—Timber structures—Joints made with mechanical fasteners—General principles for the determination of strength and deformation characteristics. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium.nCEN (1993) EN 383. Timber structures—Test methods—Determination of embedding strength and foundation values for dowel type fasteners. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium.nCEN (2003) EN 338—Structural timber—Strength classes. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium.nChen CJ, Lee TL, Jeng DS (2003) Finite element modeling for the mechanical behavior of dowel-type timber joints. Comput Struc 81(30-31):2731-2738.nDias AMPG (2005) Mechanical behaviour of timber-concrete joints. PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands. 293 pp.nDias AMPG (2006) Simulation of large deformations on timber joints using 3D FEM models. Electronic edition, 14 pages in CA Mota Soares, JAC Martins, HC Rodrigues, JAC Ambrósio, CAB Pina, CM Mota Soares, EBR Pereira, J Folgado, eds. Proc 3rd European Conference on Computational Mechanics, Springer, Lisbon, Portugal.nDias AMPG, Cruz HMP, Lopes SMR, Van de Kuilen JWG (2010) Stiffness of dowel-type fasteners timber-concrete joints. Proc Institute Civil Eng-Str B 163(4):257-266.nDias AMPG, Lopes SMR, Van de Kuilen JWG, Cruz HMP (2007a) Load-carrying capacity of timber-concrete joints with dowel-type fasteners. J Struct Eng 133(5):720-727.nDias AMPG, Van de Kuilen JW, Lopes S, Cruz H (2007b) A non-linear 3D FEM model to simulate timber-concrete joints. Adv Eng Softw 38(8-9):522-530.nFPL (1999) Wood handbook—Wood as an engineering material. Gen Tech Rep FPL-GTR-113. USDA For Serv Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI. 463 pp.nFragiacomo M, Amadio C, Macorini L (2007) Short- and long-term performance of the ‘Tecnaria’ stud connector for timber-concrete composite beams. Mater Struct 40(10):1013-1026.nGutkowski R, Brown K, Shigidi A, Natterer J (2008) Laboratory tests of composite wood-concrete beams. Construct Build Mater 22:1059-1066.nHill R (1950) The mathematical theory of plasticity. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK. 355 pp.nKharouf N, McClure G, Smith I (2003) Elasto-plastic modeling of wood bolted connections. Comput Struc 81(8-11):747-754.nPatton-Mallory M, Cramer SM, Smith FW, Pellicane PJ (1997) Nonlinear material models for analysis of bolted wood connections. J Struct Eng 123(8):1063-1070.nSilva VD (2006) Mechanical and strength of materials. Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.nVan der Put TACM (1989) Deformation and damage processes in wood. PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands. 154 pp.n






Research Contributions