Influence of Juvenile Wood on Dimensional Stability and Tensile Properties of Flakeboard
Keywords:Juvenile wood, flakeboard alignment, linear expansion, dimensional stability, tensile strength
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine if juvenile wood adversely affects the linear expansion, water adsorption, and thickness swell of aligned flakeboard. Literature on juvenile wood properties and their effects on product performance was reviewed. Veneer and lumber cut from 35-year-old plantation-grown loblolly pine were segregated by age and used to manufacture plywood and flake-board. As expected, longitudinal linear expansion of the juvenile (0 to 12 years old) veneer was greater than that of mature (13+ years old) veneer. At several levels of humidity exposure, linear expansion of symmetrical cross-laminated plywood made from the juvenile veneer was greater than that of plywood made from mature veneer. Significant increases in the linear expansion of three-layer cross-oriented flakeboard were also attributed to juvenile wood. Differences in the linear expansion of single-layer directional aligned flakeboards made from juvenile wood and from mature wood were not statistically significant for the most part. Analysis did show that test results were affected by tree-to-tree variation in wood age and sample variations. Accurate predictions of dimensional stability in three-layer cross-aligned panels were made using tensile and linear expansion properties derived from the directional flakeboard.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 1972. Standard methods of testing veneer, plywood, and other glued veneer construction. ASTM D805-72. ASTM, Philadelphia, PA.nAmerican Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 1989. Standard methods of evaluating properties of wood-based fiber and particle panel materials. ASTM D1037. ASTM, Philadelphia, PA.nBendtsen, B. A. 1978. Properties of wood from improved and intensively managed trees. Forest Prod. J. 28(10):61-72.nBendtsen, B. A. 1986. Mechanical and anatomical properties in individual growth rings of plantation-grown eastern cottonwood and loblolly pine. Wood Fiber Sci. 18(1):23-28.nBoyd, J. D. 1968. Effect of plantation conditions on wood properties and utilization. Pages 789-822 in Proc. FAO World Symposium on Manmade Forests and Their Industrial Importance.nDimitri, L., C. V. Bismarck, P. Bottcher, and J. C. Schulze. 1981. Production and use of poplar small-wood for particleboard manufacture. Holzzucht 35(1/2): 1-7.nErickson, H. D., and T. Arima. 1974. Douglas-fir wood quality studies. Part II. Effects of age and stimulated growth on fibril angle and chemical constituents. Wood Sci. Technol. 8:255-265.nForest Products Laboratory. 1987. Wood handbook: Wood as an engineering material. USDA, Forest Serv. Forest Prod. Lab., Madison, WI.nGeimer, R. L. 1976. Flake alignment in particleboard as affected by machine variables and particle geometry. Research Paper FPL 275. USDA, Forest Serv., Forest Prod. Lab., Madison, WI.nGeimer, R. L. 1982. Dimensional stability of flakeboards as affected by board specific gravity and flake alignment. Forest Prod. J. 32(8):44-52.nGeimer, R. L. 1986. Properties of structural flakeboard manufactured from 7-year-old intensively cultured poplar, tamarack, and pine. Forest Prod. J. 36(4):42-46.nGeimer, R. L., and J. B. Crist. 1980. Structural flakeboard from short-rotation intensively cultured hybrid populus clones. Forest Prod. J. 30(6):42-48.nGoggans, J. F. 1961. The interplay of environment and heredity as factors controlling wood properties in conifers with special emphasis on their effects on specific gravity. Tech. Rep. No. 11, School of Forestry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.nHallock, H. 1968. Observations on forms of juvenile core in loblolly pine. Res. Note FPL-0188. USDA, Forest Serv., Forest Prod. Lab., Madison, WI.nHeebink, B. G., E. W. Kuenzi, and A. C. Maki. 1964. Linear movement of plywood and flakeboards related to the longitudinal movement of wood. Research Note FPL-073. USDA, Forest Serv., Forest Prod. Lab., Madison, WI.nIsebrands, J. G., and D. W. Bendtsen. 1972. Incidence and structure of gelatinous fibers within rapid-growing eastern cottonwood. Wood Fiber 4(2):61-71.nIsebrands, J. G., and C. M. Hunt. 1975. Growth and wood properties of rapid grown Japanese larch. Wood Fiber 7(2): 119-128.nIsebrands, J. G., and R. A. Parham. 1974. Tension wood anatomy of short-rotation Populus spp. before and after kraft pulping. Wood Science 6(3):256-265.nJo, J. M., B. J. Chung, Y. D. Lee, D. H. Kang, D. J. Chung, and S. G. Chung. 1981. Developing multiple utilization of larch wood. Forest Research Institute, No. 28. Seoul, Korea.nKrahmer, R. L. 1986. Fundamental anatomy of juvenile and mature wood. Pages 12-16 in Proc., Juvenile Wood: What does it mean to forest management and forest products? Forest Products Research Society, Madison, WI.nLehmann, W. F., and R. L. Geimer. 1974. Properties of structural particleboard from Douglas-fir forest residues. Forest Prod. J. 24(10): 17-25.nMaloney, T. M., J. W. Talbott, E. M. Huffaker, J. B. Saunders, and M. T. Lentz. 1981. Dimensional stability of COM-PLY and other composition board panels. Pages 21-46 in T. M. Maloney, ed. Proc. Fifteenth International Particleboard Symposium, Washington State University, Pullman, WA.nMeylan, B. A. 1968. Cause of high longitudinal shrinkage in wood. Forest Prod. J. 18(4):75.nNational Particleboard Association. 1989. American national standard ANSI/A 208.1-1989. Gaithersburg, MD.nOlson, R. A., N. V. Poletika, and H. W. Hicocl. 1947. Strength properties of plantation-grown coniferous woods. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 511.nPanshin, A. J., and C. De Zeeuw. 1980. Textbook of wood technology. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, NY.nPearson, R. G., and R. C. Gilmore. 1971. Characterization of the strength of juvenile wood of loblolly pine. Forest Prod. J. 21(1):23-30.nPearson, R. G., and R. C. Gilmore. 1980. Effect of fast growth rate on the mechanical properties of loblolly pine. Forest Prod. J. 30(5):47-54.nPugel, A. D., E. W. Price, and C. Y. Hse. 1990a. Composites from southern pine juvenile wood. Part I. Panel fabrication and initial properties. Forest Prod. J. 40(1): 29-33.nPugel, A. D., E. W. Price, and C. Y. Hse. 1990b. Composies from southern pine juvenile wood. Part II. Durability and dimensional stability. Forest Prod. J. 40(3):57-61.nRendle, B. J., and E. W. J. Phillips. 1957. The effect of rate of growth (ring width) on the density of so twoods. in Proceedings, Seventh British Commonwealth Forest Conference, Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Bucks, England.nSenft, J. F., A. B. Bendtsen, and W. L. Galligan. 1985. Weak wood: Fast-grown trees make problem lumber. J. Forestry 83(8):477-484.nShiokura, T. 1982. Extent and differentiation of the juvenile wood zone in coniferous tree trunks. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 28(2):85-90.nSmith, R. W., and D. G. Briggs. 1986. Juvenile wood: Has it come of age? Pages 1-11 in Proc., Juvenile Wood: What does it mean to forest management and forest products? Forest Products Research Society, Madison, WI.nStefaniak, J. 1981. Use of juvenile wood in production of particleboard: Properties of particleboard produced from pine branch wood. Prace Komisji Technol. Drewna 10:95-116.nStefaniak, J. 1985. Suitability of pine juvenile wood for particleboard production: Properties of particleboard from topwood. Prace Komisji Technol. Drewna 11:111-131.nTalbott, J. W., T. M. Maloney, E. M. Huffcher, R. J. Hoyle, and R. W. Meyer. 1979. Analysis and design of COM-PLY panels for dimensional stability as determined by interaction between the particleboard core and veneer facing components. In Proc., 13th International Particleboard Symposium, Washington State University, Pullman, WA.nWasniewski, J. L. 1989. Evaluation of juvenile wood and its effect on Douglas fir structural composite panels. In Proc. 23rd Particleboard and Composite Materials Symposium, Washington State University, Pullman, WA.nZobel, B. J., and R. Blair. 1976. Wood and pulp properties of juvenile wood and topwood of the southern pines. In Proc., 8th Cellulose Conference, May 19-23, Syracuse, NY.nZobel, B. J., R. C. Kellison, and D. G. Kirk. 1972. Wood properties of young loblolly and slash pines. Pages 1-22 in Proc., Symposium on the effect of growth acceleration on the properties of wood, Nov. 10-11, Madison, WI.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.