Evaluation of Four Surfacing Methods on Black Spruce Wood in Relation to Poly(Vinyl Acetate) Gluing Performance


  • Julie Cool
  • Roger E. Hernández


Sanding, oblique cutting, peripheral planing, face milling, roughness, environmental scanning electron microscopy, poly(vinyl acetate), black spruce wood


Oblique cutting, peripheral planing, face milling, and sanding were used to surface black spruce wood prior to gluing with a two-component poly(vinyl acetate) adhesive. Surface roughness, anatomical features of surfaces, and glueline interfaces as well as the glueline shear strength before and after aging were evaluated. Oblique-cut surfaces presented no subsurface damage, little fibrillation, low roughness, thin gluelines, and little adhesive penetration. Peripheral-planed and face-milled surfaces both showed slight cell deformation and a higher level of fibrillation. The large number of cell lumens available and the fibrillation appeared to favor the penetration of adhesive as well as to increase surface roughness. Sanded surfaces were the smoothest, and their anatomical structures were the least visible of the four machining processes. These samples also showed more important subsurface damage, which limited the penetration of adhesive. For the glueline shear strength before and after weathering, no significant differences occurred among the surfacing treatments. The microscopic and topographic differences among the surfacing treatments were not sufficient to generate significant differences in glueline shear strength. Peripheral planing and face milling should be better alternatives with respect to productivity.


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