Research Needs In Wood Physics: A Broad Overview
Keywords:Wood physics, research needs
AbstractThe international community of forest products scientists perceives research needs in wood physics in a broad range of subjects. The research needs compiled here are organized into several areas of wood physics and technology, for the purpose of helping individual scientists formulate research projects and programs that are consistent with widely recognized needs.
Abe, F. 1973. Studies on the thermal properties of wood and woody materials. IV. Thermal expansion of wood. J. Japanese Wood Res. Soc. 19(2):69.nAllard, D., and H. Troxell. 1980. Unsteady state thermal heat transfer properties of solid wood walls. Forest Prod. J. 30(9):33-38.nAlper, J. 1984. The Stradivarius formula. Science 84:37-43.nAmerican Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers. 1981. Moisture in building construction. Chapter 21. Handbook-1981 Fundamentals. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.nAoki, T., and T. Yamada. 1973. The viscoelastic properties of wood in musical instruments. Wood Res. 54:31.nArmstrong, J., G. Kyanka, and J. Thorpe. 1977. S2 fibril angle-elastic modulus relationship of TMP scotch pine fibers. Wood Sci. 10(2):72.nAttack, D. 1958. The friction of wood. Proc. Royal Soc. A246:539-555.nBazhenov, V. 1961. Piezoelectric properties of wood. Consultants Bureau, New York.nBecker, H. 1982. Acoustic emission during drying of wood. Holz Roh- Werkst. 40(9):345-350.nBeery, W. H., G. Ifju, and T. McLain. 1983. Quantitative wood anatomy—Relating anatomy to transverse tensile strength. Wood Fiber Sci. 15(4):395-407.nBerge, A., and B. Mellegaard. 1979. Formaldehyde emission from particle-board—A new method for determination. Forest Prod. J. 29(1):21.nBoone, R. S. 1984. High-temperature kiln-drying of 4/4 lumber from 12 hardwood species. Forest Prod. J. 34(3): 10-18.nBoyd, R. 1952. A nondestructive test for decay in wood. Forest Prod. J. 2(4):25.nBramhall, G. 1976. Fick's laws and boundwater diffusion. Wood Sci. 8(3):153.nBurch, D., D. Krintz, and R. Spain. 1984. The effect of wall mass on winter heating loads and indoor comfort—An experimental study. Transactions of the ASHRAE, 90, Pt 1. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.nBurmester, A. 1965. Relation between speed of sound and morphological, physical and mechanical properties of wood. Holz Roh- Werkst. 23(6):227.nBurmester, A. 1967. Detection of knots in pinewood by ultrasonics. Holz Roh- Werkst. 25(4):157.nBusker, L. 1968. Measurement of water content above 30 percent by microwave absorption methods. Tappi 51(8):348.nChen, P., W. Helmer, H. Rosen, and D. Barton. 1982. Experimental solar-dehumidifier kiln for drying lumber. Forest Prod. J. 32(9):35-41.nChristoph, N. 1977. Investigation of thermal expansion of wood in relation to density and temperature. Holz Roh- Werkst. 35(3):99-108.nChudinov, B. 1971. Experimental investigations for determining thermal properties of wood and wood based materials. Holztechnology 12(3): 154.nChudinov, B. 1978. The hygroscopicity of wood at temperatures below O°C. 2. The condition of hygroscopic moisture and the EMC. Holztechnology 19(3):147-151.nCôté, W., and R. Hanna. 1983. Ultrastructural characteristics of wood fracture surfaces. Wood Fiber Sci. 15(1): 135-163.nCourville, G., and E. Bales. 1983. Proceedings of the building thermal mass seminar; 1982; Oak Ridge Natl. Labs., Oak Ridge, TN; Conf. 8206130.nDavidson, R., and W. Baumgardt. 1970. Plasticizing wood with ammonia—A progress report. Forest Prod. J. 20(3):19-25.nDennis, J., and F. Beall. 1977. Evaluation of a new portable radiofrequency moisture meter on lumber with drying gradients. Forest Prod. J. 27(8):24.nDuncken, B., and L. Nordman. 1968. The mechanical properties of single fibers. Svensk Papperstid. 71(5):165.nDunlap, F. 1912. The specific heat of wood. U.S. Forest Serv. Bull. 110.nFukada, E. 1968. Piezoelectricity as a fundamental property of wood. Wood Sci. Technol. 2(4):299.nGerhards, C. C. 1982a. Effect of MC and temperature on the mechanical properties of wood: An analysis of immediate effects. Wood Fiber 14(1):4-36.nGerhards, C. C. 1982b. Longitudinal stress waves for lumber stress grading: Factors affecting application: State of the art. Forest Prod. J. 32(2):20-25.nGerhards, C. C. and J. McMillen. 1976. High temperature drying effects on mechanical properties of softwood lumber. In Proceedings of research conference; 1976 Feb. 25-26. USDA, Forest Service, Forest Prod. Lab., Madison, WI.nGibson, E., and D. Rusten. 1964. Determination of the MC of pulp chips by a (nuclear) method. Norsk Skogindustri 18(10):351.nGillwald, W., and H. Eichler. 1964. The problem of RF-vacuum drying of lumber. Holztechnology 5(3):161.nGreen, D. 1980. Adjusting the static strength of lumber for changes in MC. Pages 86-105 in Proceedings, Workshop on how the environment affects lumber design; 1980 May 28-30. USDA, Forest Serv., Forest Prod. Lab., Madison, WI.nGuan, N., C. Thunell, and K. Lyth. 1983. On the friction between steel and some common Swedish wood species. Holz Roh- Werkst. 41(2):55-60.nHaishi, T. 1980. Basic modes of water absorption by wood. I. Behavior of bound and free water during penetration into wood. J. Japanese Wood Res. Soc. 26(8):510-518.nHamilton, J., and A. Clark. 1970. Relationship between strength in tension parallel to the grain and latewood trachaid morphology in normal and irradiated shortleaf pine. Wood Sci. 3(1):59.nHarris, R., and M. Taras. 1984. Comparison of moisture content distribution, stress distribution, and shrinkage of red oak lumber dried by a radiofrequency/vacuum drying process and a conventional kiln. Forest Prod. J. 34(1):44-54.nHart, C. 1964. Principles of moisture movement in wood. Forest Prod. J. 14(5):207.nHazlewood, E. 1973. Microwave moisture testing in paper and board machine press sections. Tappi 56(2):49.nHearmon, R. F. S., and J. N. Burcham. 1955. Specific heat and heat of wetting of wood. Nature 176:978.nHirai, N. 1980. Measuring methods of thermal diffusivity of wood-based materials. J. Japanese Wood Res. Soc. 26(7):439-442.nHirai, N. and A. Yamaguchi. 1979. Studies on piezoelectric effect of wood. VII. Effect of MC on piezoelectric dispersion of wood. J. Japanese Wood Res. Soc. 25(1):1-6.nHolz, D. 1973. Investigation of resonance wood. Part 5: Important properties of softwoods and hardwoods in view of mechanical and acoustic properties of soundboards. Holztechnology 14(4): 195-202.nHon, D., and G. Ifju. 1978. Measuring penetration of light into wood by detection of photo-induced free radicals. Wood Sci. 11(2):118.nHumphries, M., and A. Schniewind. 1982. Behavior of wood columns under cyclic relative humidity. Wood Sci. 15(1):44-48.nIfju, G. 1983. Quantitative wood anatomy. Certain geometrical-statistical relationships. Wood Fiber Sci. 15(4):326-337.nJahns, W., and T. Nguyen. 1977. Peroxyacetic acid bonding of wood. Forest Prod. J. 27(1):17.nJames, W. 1961. Internal friction and speed of sound in Douglas-fir. Forest Prod. J. 11(9):383-390.nJames, W. 1962. Dynamic strength and elastic properties of wood. Forest Prod. J. 12(6):253-260.nJames, W. 1967. Static and dynamic strength and elastic properties of ponderosa and loblolly pine. Wood Sci. 1(1):15-22.nJames, W. 1973. Method for studying stiffness and internal friction of individual fibers. Wood Sci. 6(1):30-38.nJames, W. 1975. Dielectric properties of wood and hardboard: Variation with temperature, frequency, MC, and grain orientation. Res. Pap. FPL-245. USDA, Forest Serv., Forest Prod. Lab., Madison, WI.nJames, W. 1984. Effect of mechanical stress on the dielectric properties of wood. (USDA, Forest Serv., Forest Prod. Lab., Madison, WI). Available from NTIS, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161.nJames, W., D. Arganbright, E. Choong, D. Doucet, M. Gorvad, W. Simpson, and W. Galligan. 1984. Moisture levels and gradients found in recently kiln-dried softwood dimension lumber. Forest Prod. J. 34(11/12):59-64.nJames, W., R. Boone, and W. Galligan. 1982. Using speed of sound in wood to monitor drying in a kiln. Forest Prod. J. 32(9):27-34.nJames, W., and D. Hamill. 1965. The dielectric properties of Douglas-fir measured at microwave frequencies. Forest Prod. J. 15(2):51-56.nJohnson, R. 1980. Current statistical methods for estimating lumber properties by proofloading. Forest Prod. J. 30(1):14-22.nKaiserlik, J. 1978. NDT methods to predict effect of degradation on wood. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL- 19. USDA, Forest Serv., Forest Prod. Lab., Madison, WI.nKelsey, K. E., and L. N. Clark. 1955. Effect of temperature and initial MC on the heat of wetting of wood. Nature 176:83.nKent, A. C., H. Rosen, and D. Crotty. 1981. Energy conservation in wood dryers using vent air energy recovery devices. Forest Prod. J. 31(2):43-49.nKingston, R. 1962. Creep, relaxation, and failure in wood. Research IV:164.nKisseloff, P. 1969. Moisture movement and heat conduction in wood. Holz Roh- Werkst. 27(7):245.nKitahara, R., and H. Kitamura. 1972. On the dynamic E and tan & of uncoated and painted wood. Bull. Utsunomiya University Forests (9):1-14.nKnezevic, O., and R. Lin. 1975. Copper in Douglas-fir and associated dielectric changes. Wood Fiber 6(4):270-274.nKollmann, F. 1963. Phenomena of fracture in wood. Holzforschung 17(3):65.nKollmann, F. 1982. Wood and heat. Holz-Zentrablatt 108(144):2074-2077.nKollmann, F. 1983. Wood and sound-theory and practical utilization. Holz-Zentrablatt 109(14):201-202.nKonarski, B. 1977. Relation between ultrasonic speed and mechanical properties of wood attacked by fungi. Holz Roh- Werkst. 35(9):341-345.nKondratev, Yu. 1975. Graphical determination of the layer-by-layer fall in MC of lumber after kiln drying. Lesnoi Zhurnal 4:86-88.nKozlik, C., and J. Ward. 1981. Properties and kiln drying characteristics of young-growth western hemlock dimension lumber. Forest Prod. J. 31(6):45-53.nKrech, H. 1960. Investigation of the relation between bending strength of wood and the rate of loading. Holz Roh- Werkst 18(7):233.nLeary, G. 1967. The yellowing of wood by light. Tappi 50(1): 17.nLemaster, R., B. Klamecki, and D. Dornfled. 1982. Analysis of acoustic emission in slow speed wood cutting. Wood Sci. 15(2):150-160.nLessard, R., D. Limbert, J. Pokoski, and J. Hill. 1982. A stress model for lumber drying control. ASME J. Dynamic Systems Measurements and Control. December.nLin, R. 1969. Effect of heat treatment on some properties of Douglas-fir. Wood Sci. 2(2):112.nLittle, R. 1981. Effect on weather on dry kiln venting losses. Forest Prod. J. 31(6):41-44.nLoos, W. 1962. Effect of gamma radiation on the toughness of wood. Forest Prod. J. 12(6):261.nMackay, J. 1978. Kiln drying treated plywood. Forest Prod. J. 28(3):19.nMacLean, J. D. 1954. Effect of heating in water on the strength properties of wood. American Wood-Preservers' Assoc. Proc. 50:1-28.nMcGinnes, E., and A. Shigo. 1975. Electronic technique for detecting discoloration, decay, and injury-associated ring shake in black walnut. Forest Prod. J. 25(5):30.nMcGinnes, E., A. Shigo, and H. N. Rosen. 1984. Macroscopic-microscopic analyses of color changes of wood pressure steam-dried above atmospheric pressure. Wood Fiber Sci. 16(1):48-56.nMcKenzie, W., and H. Karpvich. 1968. The frictional behavior of wood. Wood Sci. Technol. 2:138-152.nMcLauchlan, T., J. Norton, and D. Kusec. 1973. Slope-of-grain indicator. Forest Prod. J. 23(5): 50-55.nMcMillin, C. 1970. Specific heat of some ovendry chemical constituents of loblolly pine wood. Wood Sci. 3(1):52-53.nMcMillin, C., T. Lemoine, and F. Manwiller. 1970. Friction coefficient of spruce pine on steel. Wood Sci. 3(2):100.nMiller, D., and Y. Tardiff. 1967. Development of a vibration grader and comparison of vibration grading with visual and mechanical grading. Forestry Branch Dep. Pub. 1208. Dept. Forestry Res. Develop., Canada.nMiller, W. 1977. Energy conservation in timber drying kilns by vapor recompression. Forest Prod. J. 27(9):54.nMiyakawa, H., and M. Mori. 1977. Impact properties of wood and wood based materials. III. Effect of impact speed on failure of wood under impulsive tensile load. J. Japanese Wood Res. Soc. 23(11):528-533.nMiyakawa, H., and M. Mori. 1978. Impact properties of wood and wood based materials. IV. Effect of impact speed on shear fracture. J. Japanese Wood Res. Soc. 24(12):857-864.nMorgner, W., P. Niemz, and K. Theis. 1980. Use of acoustic emission analysis for investigation of fracture and creep processes in wood-based materials. Holztechnology 21(4):77-82.nMorton, F. 1976. In-house generation of electricity from wood waste residue. Forest Prod. J. 26(9):73.nMurase, Y. 1980. Frictional properties of wood at high sliding speeds. J. Japanese Wood Res. Soc. 26(2):61-65.nMurmanis, L., B. River, and H. Stewart. 1983a. Microscopy of abrasive-planed and knife-planed surfaces in wood-adhesive bonds. Wood Fiber Sci. 15(2):102-115.nMurmanis, L., B. River, and H. Stewart. 1983b. Microscopy of acid-activated bonding in wood. Wood Fiber Sci. 15(3):203-211.nMyers, G. 1983. Relationship of fiber preparation and characteristics to performance of mediumdensity hardboards. Forest Prod. J. 33(10):43-51.nMyers, G., and M. Nagaoka. 1981. Formaldehyde emission: Methods of measurement and effects of several particleboard variables. Wood Sci. 13(3):140-150.nNakao, T., T. Okano, and I. Asano. 1983. Effect of heat treatment on loss tangent of wood. J. Japanese Wood Res. Soc. 29(10):657-662.nNanassy, A. 1976. True dry mass and MC of wood by NMR. Wood Sci. 9(2):104.nNanassy, A. 1978. Temperature dependence of NMR measurement on moisture in wood. Wood Sci. 11(2):86.nNelson, R. 1983. A model for sorption of water vapor by cellulosic materials. Wood Fiber Sci. 15(1):8-22.nNiedzielska, B. 1972. Investigation on the interdependence between the anatomical structure of wood and its resonance properties. Acta Agravia et Sylvestria, series Silvestris 12:8.nNissan, A., and S. Sternstein. 1964. Cellulose fiber bonding. Tappi 47(1):1.nNordman, L. 1965. Optical phenomena in papers subjected to tensile stress. Das Papier 19(7):362.nNorimoto, M. 1982. Structure and properties of wood used for musical instruments. I. On the selection of wood for piano soundboards. J. Japanese Wood Res. Soc. 28(7):407-413.nNorimoto, M. and T. Yamada. 1973. On relationship between dielectric properties and crystallinity of cellulose. Wood Res. (Kyoto) 54:19-30.nOlson, J. and D. Arganbright. 1983. Drying sweetgum veneer with various combinations of impinging hot air and microwave energy. Forest Prod. J. 33(5):51-56.nOlson, J., D. Arganbright., and S. Prussin. 1982. Use of an error analysis for evaluation of a dual-energy gamma radiation method for wood MC measurement. Wood Sci. 15(1):1-13.nOnedera, S. 1966. Determination of wood MC by neutron scattering. J. Japanese Wood Res. Soc. 12(1):1.nPartl, M., and H. Strässler. 1977. Effect of temperature on the static and impact bending of spruce wood. Holzforschung 29(5):94-101.nPearson, R., and R. Gilmore. 1980. Effect of fast growth rate on the mechanical properties of loblolly pine. Forest Prod. J. 30(5):47-54.nPhillips, E. 1960. The β-ray method of determining the density of wood and the proportion of summer wood. J. Institute Wood Sci. 5:16.nPrice, E., and P. Koch. 1980. Kiln time and temperature affect shrinkage, warp, and mechanical properties of southern pine lumber. Forest Prod. J. 30(8):41-47.nPurslow, D. 1971. The use of a microwave moisture meter for studying moisture changes in timber. J. Institute Wood Sci. 5(4):40.nRaczkowski, J. 1969. The effect of MC changes on the creep behavior of wood. Holz Roh- Werkst. 27(6):232.nRatcliffe, E. 1964a. A review of thermal conductivity data—1 of 2. Wood 29(7):49.nRatcliffe, E. 1964b. A review of thermal conductivity data—2 of 2. Wood 29(8):46.nRiggins, M. 1979. Transverse NMR relaxation of water in wood. J. Applied Polym. Sci. 23(11):3147.nRowell, R. 1977. Effects of drying method and penetration of chemicals on chemically modified SYP. Wood Sci. 9(3):144.nRowell, R., R. Susott, W. Degroot, and F. Shafizadeh. 1984. Bonding fire retardants to wood. I. Thermal behavior of chemical bonding agents. Wood Fiber Sci. 16(2):214-223.nSato, K. 1983. The characteristics of acoustic emission in wood generated during several types of loading. J. Japanese Wood Res. Soc. 29(6):409-414.nSawabe, O. 1970. Studies on thermal softening of wood. I. Thermal softening of heat treated wood. Japan: Iwate University; J. Faculty Agric. 10(1):35.nSawabe, O. 1971. Studies on thermal softening of wood. II. Influence of heat pretreatment on thermal softening point of dry wood. J. Japanese Wood Res. Soc. 17(2):51.nSchaffer, E. L. 1972. Modeling the creep of wood in a changing moisture environment. Wood Fiber 3(4):232-235.nSchneider, A. 1966. Effect of heat treatment up to 200°C and water storage up to 100°C on the spectral degree of remission of various woods. Holz Roh- Werkst. 24(11):542.nSchneider, M. 1984. Domestic-sized wood chip stoker: Combustion and efficiency. Forest Prod. J. 34(3):19-24.nSchroeder, H., and C. Kozlik. 1972. The characterization of wetwood in western hemlock. Wood Sci. Technol. 6(2):85-94.nSharma, S., P. Nath, and B. Gandi. 1979. Resistance meter readings as influenced by moisture gradients in wood. J. Indian Acad. Wood Sci. 10(1):47-56.nSherwood, G., and A. TenWolde. 1981. Movement and management of moisture in light-frame structures. Pages 229-244 in Proceedings, Conference on design and performance of light-frame structures; 1981 September 22-24; Denver, CO. Kendall-Hunt Pub. Co., Dubuque, IA.nSherwood, G., and A. TenWolde. 1982. Moisture movement and control in light-frame structures. Forest Prod. J. 32(10):69-73.nShida, S., and M. Okuma. 1980. Dependency of thermal conductivity of wood-based materials on temperature and MC. J. Japanese Wood Res. Soc. 26(2): 112-117.nShortle, W. 1982. Decaying Douglas-fir wood: Ionization associated with resistance to a pulsed electric current. Wood Sci. 15(1):29-32.nShuler, C., J. Shottafer, and R. Compana. 1975. Effect of gamma irradiation in vivo on the flexural properties of American elm. Wood Sci. 7(3):209.nSiau, J. 1980. Nonisothermal moisture movement in wood. Wood Sci. 13(1):11-13.nSkaar, C. 1964. Some factors involved in the determination of moisture gradients in wood. Forest Prod. J. 14(6):239.nSkaar, C., and M. Babiak. 1982. A model for bound water transport in wood. Wood Sci. Technol. 16(2):123-138.nSkaar, C., W. Simpson, and R. Honeycutt. 1980. Use of acoustic emission to identify high levels of stress during oak lumber drying. Forest Prod. J. 30(2):21-22.nSmetana, J., and P. Kelso. 1971. Piezoelectric charge density measurements in wood. Wood Sci. 3(3):161-171.nSumiya, K. 1965. Relation between defects in wood and velocity of ultrasonic waves. Wood Res. (Kyoto) (34):22-26.nSzymani, R., and K. McDonald. 1981. Defect detection in lumber: State of the art. Forest Prod. J. 31(11):34-44.nTenWolde, A. 1983. The Kieper and MOISTWALL moisture analysis method for walls. Pages 1033-1051. In Thermal performance of the exterior envelope of buildings II; Proc. ASHRAEDOE Conf., 1982 December 6-9, Las Vegas, NV. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.nWard, J., and D. Groom. 1983. Bacterial oak: Drying problems. Forest Prod. J. 33(10):57-65.nWard, J., and D. Shedd. 1981. Characteristics for presorting white fir lumber with wetwood. Pages 32-47 in Proceedings, 32nd Annual Meeting Western Dry Kiln Clubs, School of Forestry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.nWard, J., and J. Zeikus. 1980. Bacteriological, chemical, and physical properties of wetwood in living trees. Pages 133-166. In J. Bauch, Natural variations of wood properties. Hamburg, Nr 131, Germany: Mitt. Bundesforsch. f. Forst- und Holzwirt.nWeatherwax, R. C., and A. J. Stamm. 1956. The electrical resistivity of resintreated wood (Impreg and Compreg), hydrolyzed-wood sheet (Hydroxylin), and laminated resin-treated paper (Papreg). Rep. 1385. U.S. Forest Service, Forest Prod. Lab., Madison, WI.nWengert, E. 1966. Effect of atmospheric gasses on color changes in wood exposed to ultraviolet light. J. Painting Tech. 38(493):71.nWoods, C. 1984. Energy (2): How does the log stack up? Log Home Guide for Builders and Buyers. (Spring) pp. 34-36.nWoodward, C. 1980. Fractured surfaces as indicators of cell wall behavior at elevated temperatures. Wood Sci. 13(2):83-86.nYokota, T., and H. Tarkow. 1962. Changes in dimension on heating green wood. Forest Prod. J. 12(1):43.nYoung, R., R. Rammon, S. Kelley, and R. Gillespie. 1982. Bond formation by wood surface reactions: I. Surface analysis by ESCA. Wood Sci. 14(3): 110-119.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.