Interaction of Copper-Amine With Southern Pine: Retention and Migration


  • Jun Zhang
  • D. Pascal Kamdem


Copper-amine, southern pine, retention, leaching, fixation, ethanolamine, ligand


The retention and leachability of copper in copper-amine (Cu-EA)-treated southern pine (SP) are influenced by the formulation and the composition of copper-amine treating solutions. The sources of copper used, Cu(OH)2, CuCO3, CuSO4, and Cu(NO3)2, in the copper-amine complex formulation affect the leachability of copper. Data show that copper-amine from CuSO4- and Cu(NO3)2-treated wood has less copper loss during laboratory water leaching than that from Cu(OH)2- and CuCO3-treated wood. Increasing the amine-to-copper molar ratio increases the copper retention by wood, but reduces the leach resistance of copper. The nature of amine ligands, such as monoethanolamine (primary amine), 2-methylamino-ethanol (secondary amine), and N, N-dimethyl-ethanolamine (tertiary amine), has some effect on copper retention and copper leaching. As the molecular weight of amine ligands increases, copper loss during leaching decreases.


American Wood Preservers' Association (AWPA). 1998. Book of standards. Granbury, TX.nCasassas, E., L. L. Guetems, and R. Tauler. 1989. Spectrophotometric study of complex formation in copper (II) mono-, di-, and tri-ethanolamine systems. J. Chem. Soc. Dalton Trans. 4:569-573.nCopper, P. A. 1998. Diffusion of copper in wood cell walls following vacuum treatment. Wood Fiber Sci. 30(4): 382-395.nDahlgren, S. E., and W. H. Hartford. 1972. Kinetics and mechanism of fixation of Cu-Cr As wood preservatives. Part III. Fixation of Tanalith C and comparison of different preservatives. Holzforschung 26:142-149.nFahlstrom, G. B., P. E. Gunning, and J. A. Carlson. 1967. Copper-chrome-arsenate wood preservatives: a study of the influence of composition on leachability. Forest Prod. J. 17(7): 17-22.nHagar, B. 1969. Leaching tests of copper-chrome-arsenic preservatives. Forest Prod. J. 19(10):21-26.nHancock, R. D. 1981. The chelate effect in complexes with ethanolamine. Inorganica Chimica Acta. 49(2): 145-148.nHancock, R. D., and B. S. Nakani. 1984. Some factors influencing the stability of complexes with ligands containing neutral oxygen donor ligands, including crown ethers. J. Coord. Chem. 13:309-314.nHartford, W. H. 1972. Chemical and physical properties of wood preservatives and wood preservative systems. In wood deterioration and its prevention by preservative treatments, vol. 2. Preservatives and preservatives systems. Syracuse University Press.nHulme, M. A. 1979. Ammoniacal wood preservatives. Rec. Ann. Conv. Brit. Wood Preservers' Assoc. Pp 38-50.nJensen, H. P. 1971. Copper monoethanolamine complexes. Acta Chemica. Scand. 25:1753-1757.nJin, L., and K. Archer. 1991. Copper based wood preservatives: Observation on fixation, distribution and performance. Proc. Am. Wood Preservers' Assoc. 87: 169-184.nKamdem, D. P., R. Craciun, C. Weitasacker, and M. Freeman. 1996. Investigation of copper-bis-dimethyld-ithiocarbamate (CDDC) treated wood with environmental electron microscopy and other spectroscopic techniques. Proc. AWPA 92nd Annual Meeting.nlebow, S. T., and J. J. Morrell. 1993. ACZA fixation: The roles of copper and zinc in arsenic precipitation. Proc. Am. Wood Preservers' Assoc. 89:133-146.nPizzi, A. 1982. The chemistry and kinetic behavior of Cu-Ar-As/B wood preservatives. II. Fixation of the Cu/Cr system on wood. IV. Fixation of CCA to wood. J. Polym. Sci. Chem. Ed. 20:707-724, 20:739-764.nSmith, W. B., and C. Tascioglu. 1997. Differential adsorption and absorption of copper-based wood preservatives in southern pine. Proc. Am. Wood Preservers' Assoc. 93:464-482.nTauler, R., and E. Casassas. 1986. The complex formation of Cu(II) with mono- and di-ethanolamine in aqueous solution. Inorganica Chimica Acta. 114:203-209.nThomason, S. M., and E. A. Pasek. 1997. Amine copper reaction with wood components: Acidity versus copper adsorption. IRG/WP 97-30161.n






Research Contributions