Gross Heat of Combustion of Living and Spruce Budworm-Killed Balsam Fir
Keywords:Heat of combustion, spruce budworm, balsam fir, usable heat content, adiabatic calorimetry
AbstractThe gross heat of combustion has been determined for living and spruce budworm-killed balsam fir. Results indicated the average calorific value of living balsam fir to be approximately 20 megajoules per kilogram of oven-dry material with negligible differences noted for the heat content of spruce budworm-killed material. Moisture losses associated with time after tree death strongly influence usable heat. Usable heat of budworm-killed material should be higher than living balsam fir since the moisture content of budworm-killed material is expected to be lower.
American Society for Testing and Materials. 1981. Standard test method for gross calorific value of solid fuel by the adiabatic bomb calorimeter. ASTM D 2015-77: Philadelphia, PA.nAmerican Society for Testing and Materials. 1981. Standard test methods for moisture content of wood. ASTM D 2016-74: Philadelphia, PA.nArola, R. A. 1976. Wood fuels‐how do they stack up? In Proc. of the Forest Products Research Society Energy and the Wood Products Industry Conference; No. P-76-14. Nov. 15-17, 1976, Atlanta, GA.nBarnes, D. P., and S. A. Sinclair. 1983. Time related changes in specific gravity and moisture content of spruce budworm-killed balsam fir. Can. J. For. Res.13(2):257-263.nFereshtehkhou, S. 1982. The properties of pulp and paper from spruce budworm-killed balsam fir. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Forest Products, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. 48 pp.nGovett, R. L. 1982. The potential for increased utilization of spruce budworm threatened, damaged, or killed balsam fir in the production of dimension lumber. Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Forest Products, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. 192 pp.nHughes, M. T. 1981. Waferboard and flakeboard from healthy and spruce budworm killed balsam fir. M.S. thesis, Dept. of Forest Products, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. 49 pp.nKoch, P. 1972. Utilization of southern pines. USDA For. Serv. Handbook 420, Vol. II, pp. 1382-1383.nLieu, P. J., R. G. Kelsey, and F. Shafizadeh. 1979. Some chemical characteristics of green and dead lodgepole pine and western white pine. USDA For. Serv. Res. Note, INT-256, 8 pp.nMurphey, W. K., and B. E. Cutter. 1974. Gross heat of combustion of five hardwood species at differing moisture contents. Forest Prod. J.24(2):44-45.nTukey, J. W. 1977. Exploratory data analysis. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., Reading, MA. 499 pp.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.