Bark Structure of Southern Upland Oaks


  • Elaine T. Howard


<i>Qiicrcus</i> spp, anatomy, bark, oaks, phloem, periderm, rhytidome


Bark structure of eleven oak species commonly found on southern pine sites was examined and described. In inner bark (phloem), groups of thick-walled lignified fibers and sclereids are interspersed among thin-walled cellulosie elements (parenchyma, sieve tube members, and companion cells). These fibers and selereids greatly influence the bark's density, hardness, and other physical and mechanical characteristics. The innermost periderm is the boundary between inner and outer bark. In oriter bark (rhytidome), areas of collapsed, dead phloem are enclosed by periderm layers. Periderm shape and spacing vary greatly within species. Great differences in exterior roughness and bark thickness also occur within species.


Chanc, Y.-P. 1954. Anatomy of common North American pulpwood barks. Tappi Monogr. Ser. 14, pp. 127-146.nChristopher, J. F., H. S. Sternitzke, R. C. Beltz, J. M. Earles, and M. S. Hedlund. 1976. Hardwood distribution on pine sites in the South. USDA For. Serv. Resour. Bull. SO-59, 27 pp. South. For. Exp. Sta., New Orleans, LA.nEsau, K. 1965. Plant anatomy. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. 767 pp.nEsau, K. 1969. Encyclopedia of plant anatomy: The phloem. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin. 505 pp.nEsau, K., V. I. Cheadle, and E. M. Giffobd, JR. 1953. Comparative structure and possible trends of specialization of the phloem. Am. J. Bot. 40:9-19.nEvert, R. F., B. P. Deshpande, and S. E. Eichhoun. 1971. Lateral sieve-area pores in woody dicotyledons. Can. J. Bot. 49:1509-1515.nGuttenberc, S. 1951. Listen to the bark. South. Lumberman 183(2297): 220-222.nHoldheide, W. 1951. Anatomic mitteleuro-päischer Gehölzrinden In H. Freund's Hand-buch der Mikroskopie in der Technik, Vol. 5, Part 1, pp. 193-367. Umschau Verlag:Frankfurt-am-Main.nHurber, B. 1939. Das Siebröhensystem unserer Bäume and seine Jahrezeitlichen Verande-rungen. Jahrb. wiss. Bot. 88:176-242.nHurber, B. 1958. Anatomical and physiological investigations on food translocation in trees. Pages 367-379 in K. V. Thimann, ed., The physiology of forest trees. Ronald Press, New York.nMartin, R. E. 1963. Thermal and other properties of bark and their relation to fire injury of tree stems. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Mich., Ann Arbor. 256 pp.nSitte, Von P. 1957. Der Einbau der Kork-Zellwande. In E. Treiber, ed., Die Chemie der Pflanzenzellwand. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 511 pp.nSomers, T. C., and A. F. Harrison. 1967. Wood tannins-isolation and significance in host resistance to Verticillium wilt disease. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 20:475-479.nSrivastava, L. M. 1964. Anatomy, chemistry, and physiology of bark. In J. A. Romberger and P. Mikola, eds., International review of forestry research, Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York. 240 pp.nZahur, M. S. 1959. Comparative study of secondary phloem of 423 species of woody dicotyledons belonging to 85 families. Cornell Agric. Exp. Stn. Memoir 358. Ithaca, N.Y. 160 pp.n






Research Contributions