Distribution of Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin in Impregnated Southern Pine and Effects on Stabilization


  • Hui Wan
  • Moon G. Kim


Phenol-formaldehyde resin, resin flow path, wood impregnation, wood dimensional stability, wood microscopy, resin distribution


Two low-molecular-weight phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins impregnated at 20% resin-solid concentration in southern pine (SP) wood and cured at 180°C for 20 min were studied by various microscopic methods. The micrographs indicated that the ray tracheids of SP were the main flow path of resin, rays were reinforced by cured resin, and flow of resin into lumens was more difficult for higher-molecular-weight resin. Some PF resin deposits were found in lumens. PF resin deposits were formed to connect ray tracheids and longitudinal tracheids, resulting in interlocking bridges that possibly reduced dimensional changes of wood in the tangential direction. These resin deposits appear to be responsible for the high dimensional stability observed in this direction. The diffusion of PF resins into cell walls appears to occur through rays or primary walls, but not through lumens or the warty layer.


Bolton AJ, Dinwoodie JM, Davies DA (1988) The validity of the use of SEM/EDAX as a tool for the detection of UF resin penetration into wood cell walls in particleboard. Wood Sci Technol 22:345-356.nConners TE (2000) Personal communication. Department of Forestry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0073.nde Silveira G, Forsberg P, Conners TE (1995) Scanning electron microscopy: A tool for the analysis of wood pulp fibers and paper. Pages 41-71 in T. E. Conners and S. Banerjee, eds. Surface Analysis of Paper. CRC Press, New York.nDetlefsen WD (1999) Personal communication. Borden Chemical, Inc. Springfield, OR 97477.nForest Products Laboratory (1999) Wood handbook—Wood as an engineering material. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTP-113. Chap 19. p 5. USDA Forest Prod Lab, Madison, WI.nKamke FA, Length CA, Saunders HG (1996) Measurement of resin and wax distribution on wood flakes. Forest Prod J 46(6):63-68.nKelsey KE (1963) A critical review of the relationship between the shrinkage and structure of wood. Division of forest products technological paper No. 28. CSIRO. Melbourne, Australia. 35 pp.nKuo M, Oren G, McClelland JF, Luo S, Hse C-Y (1994) Determining of resin distribution on fibrous substrates. Pages 131-143 in Proc. Adhesives and Bonded Wood Products Symposium. Proceeding No. 4735. Forest Products Society, Madison WI.nMatsumura J, Booker RE, Donaldson LA, Ridoutt BG (1998) Impregnation of radiata pine wood by vacuum treatment: Identification of flow paths using fluorescent dye and confocal microscopy. IAWA J 19(1):25-33.nMetcalfe CR, Chalk L (1979) Anatomy of the dicotyledons. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Vol 1:185.nMorita I, Sakata I (1991) Polymer distribution in the cell wall of a wood-polyethylenimine composite. Wood Sci Technol 25:215-224.nMurmanis L, Youngquist JA, Myers GC (1986) Electron microscopy study of hardboards. Wood Fiber Sci 18(3): 369-375.nNearn WT (1974) Application of the ultrastructure concepts in industrial wood products research. Wood Sci 6(3):285-293.nNicholas DD (1999) Personal communication. Department of Forest Products. Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS.nNicholas DD, Siau J (1973) Factors influencing the treatability of wood. Pages 299-343 in D. Nicholas with the assistance of W. E. Loos ed. Wood deterioration and its prevention by preservative treatments. Syracuse University Press.nPanshin AJ, Zeeuw CD (1980) Textbook of wood technology. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 722 pp.nParameswaran N, Himmelreich M (1979) Microtechnological investigations on wood based materials bonded with waste sulphite liquor. Holz Roh-Werkst 37(2):57-64.nPetric M, Murphy RJ, Morris I (2000) Microdistribution of some copper and zinc containing waterborne and organic solvent wood preservatives in spruce wood cell walls. Holzforschung 54:23-26.nPostek MT, Howard H, Jonhson A, McMichael KL (1980) Scanning electron microscopy, A student handbook. Copyright by M. T. Postek, Jr. and Ladd Research Industries. 305 pp.nRozman HD, Kumar RN, Adlli MRM, Abusamah A, Ishak Zam (1998) The effect of lignin and surface activation on the mechanical properties of rubberwood-polypropylene composites. J Wood Chem Technol 18(4): 471-490.nSingh A, Dawson B 1996. Microscopic studies on the relationship between the structure and chemical impregnability of wood. Pages 166-175 in Pacific Rim Bio-Based Composites Symposium, Kyoto, Japan.nSong XM, Hwang JY (1997) A study of the microscopic characteristics of fracture surface of MDI-bonded wood fiber/recycled tire rubber composites using scanning electron microscopy. Wood Fiber Sci 29(2):131-141.nStamm AJ, Seborg RM (1939) Resin-treated plywood. Ind Eng Chem 31(7):897-902.nVigdorovich AI, Chalykh AE (1984) Impregnation of a wood component of the composite material with polymer binders. Khimiya Drevesiny 3:91-98.nWan H (2000) Stabilization of strandboard by impregnating low molecular weight phenol-formaldehyde resins and butanetetracarboxylic acid. Ph D. Dissertation, Department of Forest Products, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS. 167 pp.nWan H, Kim MG (2006) Stabilization of strandboard by impregnating low molecular weight phenol-formaldehyde resin into strands. Wood Fiber Sci 38(2):314-324.nWang Q, Imamura Y, Sasaki H (1992) Utilization of laminated-veneer-lumber from Sabah plantation thinnings as beam flanges II. Adhesion of particleboard webs and laminated-veneer-lumber flanges. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 38(4): 364-373.nXu Cy, Hua Y, Lian Y (1999) PF penetration into poplar flakes and its effect on properties of flakeboard during steam pressing. China Wood Ind 13(2):7-9.n






Research Contributions