Interlaboratory Testing of Wood Preservatives Using Astm D1413-61


  • Roger S. Smith
  • Lee R. Gjovik


Soil block culture, creosote, pentachlorophenol, copper-chrome-arsenate, wood-decaying fungi, ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, sterilization, toxic threshold, decay


Toxic thresholds for three wood preservatives determined at the Western Forest Products Laboratory, Vancouver, Canada, and at the U. S. Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, showed considerable interlaboratory variation. At the Vancouver laboratory, toxic thresholds were always lower, and wood weight losses for the untreated control blocks were higher than the corresponding data for the Madison laboratory. Toxic thresholds calculated from both oven-dry weights and conditioned weights were similar within each laboratory. Ethylene oxide was unsuitable for the sterilization of creosote-treated wood because of the resulting increase in its toxicity to fungi.


American Society for Testing and Materials. 1961. Standard method of testing wood preservatives by laboratory soil-block cultures. ASTM Designation D1413-61. Philadelphia, Pa.nAnon. 1956 Co-operative trials for B.S.I.—W. P.C. 10 of the soil/block method of testing the initial toxicity of wood preservatives. Internal report. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Forest Products Research Laboratory, Princes Risborough, Bucks, England.nBritish Standards Institution. 1961. Methods of test for toxicity of wood preservatives to fungi. BS 838, London, England.nDa Costa, E. W. B., and L. D. Osborne. 1969. Laboratory evaluations of wood preservatives. IV. Effect of experimental variables in testing creosotes against decay fungi. Holzforschung 23(6): 206-212.nDa Costa, E. W. B., R. Johanson, and L. D. Oshorne. 1969. Laboratory evaluation of wood preservatives. III. Effectiveness of Australian vertical retort creosotes against decay, in relation to phenolic content. Holzforschung 23(3): 99-107.nDeutsche Normenausschuss. 1939. Prüfung von Holzschutzmitteln, Mykologische Kurzprüfung (Klölzchen-Verfahren). DIN 52176, Blatt 1.nDuncan, C. G. 1953. Evaluating wood preservatives by soil-block tests. 6. Exploratory tests toward improving the method. Proc. AWPA 49: 49-55.nDuncan, C. G. 1958. Studies of the methodology of soil-block testing. Rep. No. 2114, U.S. For. Prod. Lab., Madison, Wis. 126 p.nDuncan, C. G., and C. A. Richards. 1950. Evaluating wood preservatives by soil-block tests. 1. Effect of the carrier on pentachloro-phenol solutions. 2. Comparison of a coaltar creosote, a petroleum containing penta-chlorophenol or copper naphthenate and mixtures of copper naphthenate and mixtures of them. Proc. AWPA 46: 131-145.nHilditch, E. A., and R. E. Hambling. 1971. Wood preservative tests and their assessment. Annu. Conv. BWPA 1971: 95-113. London, England.nLiese, Nowak, Peters, Rabanus, Krieg and Pflug. 1935. Toximetrische Bestimmung von Holzkonservierungsmitteln. Angew. Chem. 48(21): 1-18.nMcMillin, C. W. 1963. Dimensional stabilization with polymerizable vapor of ethylene oxide. For. Prod. J. 13(2): 56-61.nNordic Wood Preservation Council. 1970. Standard for testing of wood preservatives. Mycological test. Jordburk method—a soil block test with wood-rotting Basidiomycetes. NWPC Standard No., Helsinki, Finland.nSavory, J. G., and A. F. Bravery. 1970. Collaborative experiments in testing the toxicity of wood preservatives to soft rot fungi. Mater. Org. 5(1): 59-80.nSchulze, B., G. Theden, and K. Starfinger. 1950. Ergebnisse einer vergleichenden Prüfung der pilzwidrigen Wirksamkeit von Holzchutzmitteln. Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen der deutschen Materialprüfungsanstalten. II. Folge, Heft 7: 1-40 Springer-Verlag, Berlin.nSmith, R. S. 1965. Sterilization of wood test blocks by volatile chemicals. Effects on Lentinus lepideus.Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 48(3): 341-347.nSmith, R. S. 1968. Effect of moisture content on the sterilization of wood, under vacuum, by propylene and ethylene oxides. Can. J. Bot. 46(3): 299-303.nSmith, R. S., and C. V. Sharman. 1971. Effect of gamma radiation, wet-heat, and ethylene oxide sterilization of wood on its subsequent decay by four wood destroying fungi. Wood and Fiber 2(4): 356-362.nU. S. Federal Specification Creosote, coal tar, technical, TT-C-645 B. 1967. U. S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D. C.nUrad Pro Normalizaci. 1961. Statni Norma No. CSN 49,0604. Prague, Ceskoslavenska.nWälchli, O. 1970. Influence of the organic matter of soil on the degradation of wood by soft rot fungi. International Research Group on Wood Preservation, Working Group II—Fundamentals of Testing. Report presented at annual meeting, Nancy, France.n






Research Contributions