Wood Machining Properties of Poplar Hybrid Clones from Different Sites Following Various Drying Treatments
Keywords:Planing, sanding, routing, turning, poplar hybrid, clones, surface quality, surface roughness
AbstractPlaning, sanding, turning, and routing properties of seven hybrid poplar clones from three growing sites were evaluated on kiln-dried specimens following three types of drying schedules, high temperature, elevated temperature, and conventional. Machining tests were performed at 8 and 12% MC according to ASTM D 1666-87. Surface quality was evaluated with qualitative and quantitative methods. Poplar clones performed well for planing, sanding, and routing and poor for turning. In general, machining performance was affected in decreasing order by machining, clones, kiln-drying treatments, and growing sites. The best planing was obtained at a 20° rake angle and at 24 knife marks per 25.4 mm. Better conditions should be obtained at a 17° rake angle and lower feed rates. Conventional drying positively affected planing performance compared with the other two drying processes. Sanding using 180-grit sandpaper performed excellently. Turning was better at 12% MC than at 8% MC. For routing, down-milling mode provided generally better surface quality than up-milling mode. Three clones were selected as more suitable for machining. Generally, denser wood behaved better than light wood for all machining processes. However, correlations between wood density and machining properties were weak. Although selection of best clones for wood density could indirectly help improve wood machining, direct measurement of these properties is preferable. Finally, only a few weak effects of drying and sites were observed on specific conditions of machining, and they were thus considered negligible.
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