The Management of Technology Transfer Plenary Paper
Keywords:Economic development, technological innovation and transfer, research, management
The future world economic development as well as the improvement of other aspects of the quality of life depends to a very large extent on technological development, which again depends essentially on the successful application of the process of technological innovation. This process with its various stages of research, development, engineering, and marketing cannot function without effective communication for the purpose of technology transfer, i.e., transferring knowledge between the stages.
It is important not only to understand the process of technological innovation and to realize that technology transfer is an essential part of it, but also to understand that technology transfer is the transferring of knowledge rather than of goods and services, and is dependent on successful communication. Further, technology transfer should be managed as part of the package of managing technological innovation, which should be purposeful and continuous rather than a response to haphazard demands.
One of the aims of the National Timber Research Institute is to promote the more efficient use of the South African wood resource as a reliable and economical structural material. Research results in this field have been successfully transferred to the South African forest products industry where 90 low cost stress-grading machines are now in use, and where stress-graded timber is selectively used in glulam products and 20% of all roof trusses.
The low cost grading machine, the grading system, the design data, the roof truss design method and computer program, as well as the glulam manufacturing systems, were developed by the National Timber Research Institute and transferred to industry by way of research steering committees, symposia, publications, industry-sponsored development contracts, and direct assistance in factories.
Bosman, D. L. 1969. Research and development—a prerequisite for economic progress in industry. EASA 26:(6)140-145, November/December 1979. CSIR Ref. No. RU 1.65.nBosman, D. L. 1973. Principles and practice of R & D management. HOUT 68. Timber Research Unit, CSIR. Paper presented at the IUFRO Division 5 meeting, South Africa, 1973.nBosman, D. L. 1977. Research workers: Produce or perish. Wood Fiber, 8(4):262-266. CSIR Ref. No. R. HOUT 91.nBright, James R. 1971. Turning research and development into a national resource. Proceedings of a Symposium on Research and Development—a programme for economic progress. Jan Smuts, 1 October 1971. 433 pp.nBright, James R. 1972. A brief introduction to technological forecasting. The Pennaquid Press.nCharpie, R. A. 1970. Technological innovation and the international economy. Paper delivered at a Science of Science Foundation Symposium on Technological Innovation and the Growth of the Economy. Cambridge. Wiley-Interscience.nDailey, C. A. 1967. Entrepreneurial management. McGraw-Hill, New York.nDrucker, Peter F. 1969. The age of discontinuity. Heineman, London.nGartner, J., and C. S. Naiman. 1976. Overcoming the barriers to technology transfer. Research Management, 22-28.nHolt, K. 1978. Information inputs to new product planning and development. Research Policy 7:342-360.nLevitt, T. 1968. Innovation and marketing. Pan Books, London.nLoubser, R. S., and F. J. H. Le Riche. 1979. Die benutting van navorsingsresultate (The utilization of research results.) Paper delivered at the Annual Meeting of the South African Academy of Science and Art on 21 June 1979, Stellenbosch, South Africa.nŌzdas, M. N. 1979. Opening address. Published proceedings of the International Conference on Technology Transfer in Industrialized Countries, Estoril, Portugal, November 1977. Suthoff and Noordhoff International Publishers BV, Alphen van den Rijn, The Netherlands.nPresident's Message to Congress on Science and Technology. Weekly compilation of Presidential Documents, 8(12), March 1972.nProceedings of the Symposium on Technology Transfer, Pretoria, 1974. Organized by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and the Engineers' Association of South Africa.nTeece, D. 1976. The multinational comparative and the resource cast of international technology transfer. Cambridge, MA.nTwiss, B. C. 1974. Managing technological innovation. Longman, London and New York.nU.S. Department of Commerce. 1974. Technology transfer and utilization recommendations for redirecting the emphasis and correcting the imbalance. National Academy of Engineering, National Technical Information Service.n
The copyright of an article published in Wood and Fiber Science is transferred to the Society of Wood Science and Technology (for U. S. Government employees: to the extent transferable), effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. This transfer grants the Society of Wood Science and Technology permission to republish all or any part of the article in any form, e.g., reprints for sale, microfiche, proceedings, etc. However, the authors reserve the following as set forth in the Copyright Law:
1. All proprietary rights other than copyright, such as patent rights.
2. The right to grant or refuse permission to third parties to republish all or part of the article or translations thereof. In the case of whole articles, such third parties must obtain Society of Wood Science and Technology written permission as well. However, the Society may grant rights with respect to Journal issues as a whole.
3. The right to use all or part of this article in future works of their own, such as lectures, press releases, reviews, text books, or reprint books.