Effects of Cyclic Loading on Velocities of Ultrasonic Waves Propagating Through Wood


  • Yasutoshi Sasaki
  • Masumi Hasegawa


Acoustoelastic effect, ultrasonic wave velocity, shear wave, longitudinal wave, wood


The aim of this study was to determine the acoustoelastic phenomenon of wood under cyclic loading-unloading processes. Compression or tension load was repeatedly applied to wood specimens within an elastic range. Ultrasonic waves used in this study were shear and longitudinal waves, and their propagation directions were normal to, and along, the loading directions. The ultrasonic wave velocities were obtained by the sing-around method, which is a method for measuring transit time of ultrasonics. The experimental results revealed that change in the velocity of ultrasonic waves passing through wood under axial stress was a nearly linear function of applied stress level with similar slope for both loading and unloading cycles. The acoustoelastic effect of wood was found to be a repeatable and reversible phenomenon. The acoustoelastic constant seemed to maintain a fixed value regardless of the number of loading cycles. The acoustoelastic technique could be used in the determination of stress conditions of structural components in timber construction.


Arai, Y., and H. Kobayashi. 1990. Measurement of welding residual stresses by acoustoelastic technique using longitudinal and transverse waves (in Japanese). Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng. 56:81-87.nBenson, R. W., and V. J. Raelson. 1959. Acoustoelasticity. Prod. Eng. 30:56-59.nBucur, V. 1995. Acoustics of wood. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 79 pp.nClark, A. V., R. B. Mignogna, and R. J. Sanford. 1983. Acousto-elastic measurement of stress and stress intensity factors around crack tips. Ultrasonics 21:57-64.nFukuoka, H., H. Toda, and H. Naka. 1983. Nondestructive residual-stress measurement in a wide-flanged rolled beam by acoustoelasticity. Exp. Mech. 23:120-128.nHasegawa, M., Y. Sasaki, and T. Iwata. 2000. Acous-toelastic effect of wood III. Effect of applied stresses on the velocity of ultrasonic waves propagating normal to the direction of the applied stress. J. Wood Sci. 46:102-108.nHsu, N. N. 1974. Acoustical birefringence and the use of ultrasonic waves for experimental stress analysis. Exp. Mech. 14:169-176.nImanishi, E., M. Sasabe, and Y. Iwashimizu. 1982. Experimental study on acoustical birefringence in stressed and slightly anisotropic materials. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71(3):565-572.nIwashimizu, Y. 1994. Theory of acoustoelasticity (in Japanese). In H. Fukuoka, ed. Acoustoelasticity. JSNDI, Tokyo. Japan.nKübler, H. 1959. Studien über Wachstumsspannungen des Holzes—Dritte Mitteilung: Längenänderungen bei der Wärmebehandlung frischen Holzes. Holz Roh-Werkst 17(3):77-86.nKübler, H. 1973. Role of moisture in hygrothermal recovery of wood. Wood Sci. 5(3):198-204.nKübler, H., L. Liang, and L. S. Chang. 1973. Thermal expansion of moist wood. Wood Fiber 5(3):257-267.nNegishi, K., and K. Takagi. 1984. Ultrasonic technique (in Japanese). Tokyo University Press, Tokyo. Japan. Pp. 148-150.nOkada, K. 1981. Acoustoelastic determination of stress in slightly orthotropic materials. Exp. Mech. 21:461-466.nPerkitny, T., and L. Helinska-Raczkowska. 1966. Über den Einfluß von Wachstumsspannungen auf die durch Teperatur und Feuchtigkeitsänderung ausgelösten Ver-formungen des Holzes. Holz Roh-Werkst. 24(10):481-486.nSasaki, Y., and T. Okuyama. 1983. Residual stress and dimensional changes on heating green wood. J. Jpn. Wood Res. Soc. 29(4):302-307.nSasaki, Y., T. Iwata, K. Kuraya, and K. Ando. 1995. Acoustoelastic effect of wood. J. Jpn. Wood Res. Soc. 41:1173-1175.nSasaki, Y., T. Iwata, K. Kuraya, and K. Ando. 1997. Acoustoelastic effect of wood I. Effect of compressive stress on the velocity of ultrasonic longitudinal waves parallel to the longitudinal direction of the wood. J. Jpn. Wood Res. Soc. 43:227-234.nSasaki, Y., T. Iwata, K. Kuraya, and K. Ando. 1998. Acoustoelastic effect of wood II. Effect of compressive stress on the velocity of ultrasonic longitudinal waves parallel to the transverse direction of the wood. J. Wood Sci. 44:21-27.nSasaki, Y., M. Hasegawa, and T. Iwata. 2001. Acoustoelastic stress measurement of wood in bending. A new attempt at determining stress conditions of wood. Holz Roh-Werkst. 59(4):237-243.nSharma, S. N., B. I. Bali, and R. C. Lohani. 1978. Abnormal dimensional changes on heating green sal. Wood Sci. 10(3):142-150.nToda, H. 1993. Measurement of ultrasonic velocity in solids (in Japanese). J. Jpn. Welding Res. Soc. 62:419-424.nYokota, T., and H. Tarkow. 1962. Changes in dimension on heating green wood. Forest Prod. J. 12(1):43-45.n






Research Contributions